Liquid smoke are chemicals distillation of combustion fumes. Disinfectant liquid smoke can become so groceries can survive for long without harm consumers (Amritama, 2007). According Darmadji, et al (1996), coconut shell pyrolysis which has become liquid smoke would have amounted to 4.13% phenol, carbonyl 11.3% and 10.2% acid. Such compounds are able to preserve food so that they can last a long time because it has a main function as inhibitors of bacterial growth. Preservation with liquid smoke has several advantages, among others, more friendly to the environment because it does not cause air pollution, liquid smoke can be applied quickly and easily, liquid smoke does not require the installation of fumigation, the use of liquid smoke on the equipment used is simple and easy to clean, concentration liquid smoke used can be adjusted to the desired, liquid smoke contains compounds that are volatile essential that easily controlled (Lester, 2008). The products resulting from the use of liquid smoke has a uniform appearance, liquid smoke was instrumental in the formation of sensory compounds and provide assurance of food safety (Swastawati, 2008).One of the materials from the manufacture of liquid smoke is using coconut shell which is residue of making copra and coconut oil. Coconut shell is part coconut fruit serves as a protective core. Coconut shell is located inside the coconut after scouring, and a hard coating with a thickness of 3-5 mm, including a group of hard wood. Inside there is the content of the coconut shell liquid smoke, liquid smoke contains phenols which act to preserve food naturally.Fatimah, (1998) in Anonymous, (2007) stated the classes of compounds constituent liquid smoke is water (11-92%), phenol (0.2 to 2.9%), acid (2.8 to 9.5% ), carbonyl (2.6 to 4.0%), and tar (1-7%). The content of the compounds is crucial constituent liquid smoke liquid smoke organoleptic properties and determining product quality fumigation. Neutral fraction of liquid smoke also contains phenols which can also act as antioxidants such as guaikol (2–methoxy phenol) and siringol (1,6–dimethoxy phenol). Phenol compounds in addition to having a role in aroma smoke also showed antioxidant activity. Besides hemisellulosa coconut shell also contains cellulose and lignin. The most important results of cellulose pyrolysis is acetic acid and phenol in small amounts. Whereas lignin pyrolysis aimlessly aroma role in curing product.Acid content in the liquid smoke can affect the taste, pH and asapan product shelf life; carbonyl reacts with proteins and form brown coloring and phenol which is a major shaper aroma and showed antioxidant activity (Prananta, 2005). Smoke distillate coconut shell has the ability to preserve foodstuffs because of the acidic compounds, phenolic and carbonyl. Shell liquid smoke contains more than 400 components and has a function as a barrier to the development of bacteria that are quite safe as a natural preservative, such as acids, phenolic and carbonyl (Sugiyono and Dada in Akhirudin, 2006).
Girard (1992) reported that the component is detected in the smoke are grouped into several categories, namely:1. Phenol, 85 kinds identified in the condensate and 20 kinds in asapan production.2. Karbonol, ketones, and aldehydes, 45 kinds identified in the condensate.3. 35 kinds of acids identified in the condensate.4. Furan, 11 kinds5. Alcohol and esters, 15 kinds identified in the condensate.6. lactone, 13 kinds.7. Aliphatic hydrocarbons 1 kind, identified in the condensate and
20 kinds in asapan production.
8. Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) 47 kinds identified in the condensate and 20 kinds in asapan production.